Sample product authenticity testing

Food fingerprinting: Using a two-tiered approach to monitor and mitigate food fraud in rice. J AOAC Int. Mary McBride is associate vice president of applied markets at Agilent Technologies. She leads a team focused to develop strategy for growth across the applied segment markets food, environmental, energy and chemical, materials and forensics.

Mary has many years of business and market development experience and deep technical expertise in biological-based testing and biotechnology development.

She holds a PhD in analytical chemistry from the University of California at Davis and has published more than 50 peer-reviewed papers and holds 5 patents. I Understand. Food Authenticity: Testing To Keep One Step Ahead Article Published: August 23, Mary McBride PhD, Agilent Technologies.

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Read time: 7 minutes. Analysis in action: The rice project Credit: © Agilent Technologies, Inc. Food fraud and testing in the era of COVID The COVID pandemic has brought about far-reaching changes in the food industry, many of which impact food authenticity and testing.

Toward a safer future The mechanism by which our world feeds itself grows more complex every day. References 1. Accessed August 17, 2. Accessed August 17, 3. Accessed Aug 18, 5. Accessed Aug 18, 6.

Accessed Aug 18, 7. Related Topic Pages. Gas Chromatography. The COVID Pandemic. Infectious Diseases. Food and Beverage Analysis. Liquid Chromatography. Mass Spectrometry. Try it free. Talk to sales.

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Thought for Food Blog. Home Blog Thought for Food Blog Food authenticity testing: A positive approach in combating food fraud.

Food authenticity testing: A positive approach in combating food fraud By Dr. Food fraud compliance and safety assessment The safety compliance of food products is covered under the European Commission General Food Law. Development of standard methods Multiple food fraud initiatives and programmes have been funded across the globe to define quality principles, develop analytical methods and set standards for food authenticity testing.

Food authenticity testing approaches There are two different approaches to food authenticity testing, depending on the type of fraud and level of vulnerability: targeted and non-targeted analysis. The GFSI defines seven distinct types of food fraud as the following: Substitution is the process of replacing a food, partly or totally, with a cheaper substance; for instance, mixing extra virgin olive oil with low grade oil.

Applications of targeted and non-targeted approach Targeted approaches can be used to reveal substitution, dilution, concealment and mislabelling. Future of authenticity testing The concept of using authenticity testing to identify EMAs is shifting the fight against food fraud from reaction after they happen, to early detection and prevention, thus allowing the food industry to have control over the issue of food safety.

Failure to regulate food safety in China References AMWG Bouzembrak, Y. Available on FSTA BRC Global Standards for Food Safety, Version 8. London: British Retail Consortium. Danezis, G. Available on FSTA Elliott, C.

Elliott Review into the integrity and assurance of food supply networks-Final report: A national food crime prevention framework. Available on FSTA Gossner, C. Available on FSTA II FFI, MST Food Fraud Initiative Food Fraud Compliance Requirements We provide PCR-based testing services for GMOs with turnaround time between hours.

Click here to learn more about GMO Testing. IEH provides cotton species identification services to support the development of your cotton products. Undeclared allergens constitute a large portion of food recalls, and there is a tendency to underestimate the impact of allergens on susceptible populations.

We offer a comprehensive array of qualitative and quantitative allergen testing, food testing labs, consulting, and validation study services for allergen testing and control. Click here to learn more about Allergen Testing. Still have questions? Let us know how we can help and we will get back to you shortly!

By filling out this information, you are adhering to our privacy policy. Authenticity Testing. Leaders in food authenticity testing. Turnaround time: 2 — 7 days. Talk to a Consultant. Experts in food fraud and adulteration. Economic Adulteration.

Incidental Adulteration. Intentional Misbranding. All aspects of a given product are replicated, with special attention to packaging.

samples using one of two methods certified through round robin testing. A Resources. Submission Forms · Biobased Product Testing Facility · Radiocarbon AMS Authenticity testing is the analytical authenticity verification of food and feed with regard to its composition, purity, origin and production The system is able to analyze several sample types and targets (meat, fish and simple plant samples) within a single sequencing run, enabling shorter

Sample product authenticity testing - We offer food authenticity testing by providing a comprehensive portfolio of methods dedicated to the detection of adulterants in fruit juice, agave syrup samples using one of two methods certified through round robin testing. A Resources. Submission Forms · Biobased Product Testing Facility · Radiocarbon AMS Authenticity testing is the analytical authenticity verification of food and feed with regard to its composition, purity, origin and production The system is able to analyze several sample types and targets (meat, fish and simple plant samples) within a single sequencing run, enabling shorter

Such a crude probabilistic interpretation is invaluable for prioritising resources to follow-up audit or investigation. The limitation of all MVA approaches is the strength of the reference database. Is it representative of all-natural variation within genuine examples, in terms of provenance, of the food in question?

It is difficult to predict the effect of seemingly minor variations on the position of an MVA data point in a pattern, particularly when the parameters being measured are uncharacterised with no cause-and-effect theories underpinning their variation.

For example, the MVA pattern of fats in beef, intended to diagnose the cattle breed, might be profoundly affected by a change in the composition of cattle feed.

Reference datasets are often built in-house by laboratories, with the risk that they do not appreciate the full nuances and variety of the genuine food on the market, and so unwittingly exclude some variations related to provenance. The best reference datasets are constructed in collaboration with the appropriate food industry.

temperature and rainfall. Reference databases are expensive to construct, a big commercial investment for any laboratory. Due to both practical and cost limitations the number of individual data points in a reference database can be limited.

There are valid technical reasons why some datasets cannot be transferred between different instruments in different laboratories, but there are also Intellectual Property protections on some reference datasets.

This can make it difficult to challenge or to gain a second opinion on test results and interpretations. It also means that different laboratories specialise in different applications, and even different food types.

There are programmes to co-ordinate different laboratory offerings to provide virtual networks of expertise, for example the Food Authenticity Network [7] in the UK.

The traditional analytical model is for samples to be sent to a laboratory, with results returned in a few days or weeks. This is beginning to change. There are clear advantages to the food industry in tests that can be conducted at point of use and give a real-time result.

Some such tests are now in routine use. One example, used in the processed fish industry, is online NMR to tell the species of frozen white block fish ingredients. Another is the use of Near Infra Red NIR scanners for authenticity testing of milk coming into large dairy collection centres used by milk-powder manufacturers.

A real-time warning flag is raised if there is anything abnormal about the raw material intake. The key to this type of test is that a food company should set up this testing for their own product lines using authentic samples.

The system should also be set-up to monitor how products change over time, with suitable flags to alert when something significant has changed in the manufacturing process or supply chain. This change may not always be the result of fraud, but simply due to a known swap such as the supplier or variety of ingredient.

This is especially true for non-liquid product types. The next predicted paradigm shift is towards tests that can be conducted by the general public at supermarket shelves or in their own homes, and the concept of Citizen Science popularised by astronomy.

There is at least one kit already on the market [8] and, although as currently sold these cannot be relied on for valid results, there are major publicly-funded research projects [9] to develop and validate home allergen test kits or miniaturised NIR-scanners linked to smartphones that will pass scientific acceptance.

The majority of testing will continue to be conducted in specialist laboratories in the foreseeable future, due to the inherent capital cost of equipment, need for purchase and disposal of specialist reagents, a highly controlled environment, the need for expert interpretation, or due to simple economies of scale.

But the use of certain tests in limited applications within food production-line environments has provided a step-change in the effectiveness of fraud detection measures in recent years. Once it is known that a particular food fraud can be detected, and that testing is in routine use, fraudsters will move on to something else.

Therefore, whilst the established validated methods are needed for continued due diligence, development of new methods tends to be a rapidly moving field. There can be a necessary compromise between speed of development, publication, offering to market, and the robustness and scope of the method validation.

Many of the established, validated and documented methods were developed under publicly-funded programmes such as the UK food authenticity programme methods now curated online 7 or the EU Food Integrity Programme.

Table 1 gives some examples of the many publications on different test methods and applications. This is to give a flavour of what is available; it is not a comprehensive list of the thousands of scientific papers that have been published on specific test methods and applications in recent years, nor an IFST endorsement of a particular method or researcher.

It is also important to remember the role of lower-technology testing in food analysis. Some claims e. Some of the most powerful analytical applications use a combination of different test techniques, and perform multivariate analysis on the total data set.

See IFST Information Statement ' Food Authenticity Testing part 2: Analytical Techniques ' for further details on specific techniques. There is a conceptual divide between analytical techniques traditionally used for food contaminants or nutritional parameters and those used for many food authenticity tests.

Rather than measure a specific component against a fixed limit, they often rely on a probabilistic match of a result or a pattern of results against a reference database of authentic samples. This means that the interpretation of modern authenticity test results rarely meets the burden of proof that would be required in a court of law.

There is inevitable uncertainty over both the fitness of the probability match and whether the reference database is truly representative of the test sample. Provided that these caveats are appreciated, authenticity testing has a valuable place in the supply chain assurance programmes of food businesses.

Test results can be used to target and inform follow-up investigations and audits. And testing programmes are a deterrent to potential fraudsters. The analytical techniques and references databases used for authenticity testing are rapidly evolving.

Whatever the authenticity question there is likely a research group, somewhere, working on it. Amongst the plethora of scientific publications and advertised laboratory services, it is important to differentiate between proof-of-concept studies using narrowly controlled conditions and approaches that have been applied to real-world situations.

Rather than a transactional customer-client relationship for analytical testing, laboratories are increasingly working with food industry clients to understand and tailor analytical approaches to address their specific authenticity risks and ingredient or product types.

This collaboration and communication is often essential for the successful interpretation of results. Used generically to describe test methods that identify based on protein sequences within nucleic acids. John Spink and Douglas Moyer, Defining the Public Health Threat of Food Fraud, Journal of Food Science, 76 R This updated Information Statement has been prepared by John Points MIFST , peer reviewed by professional members of IFST and approved by the IFST Scientific Committee.

The Institute takes every possible care in compiling, preparing and issuing the information contained in IFST Information Statements, but can accept no liability whatsoever in connection with them. Nothing in them should be construed as absolving anyone from complying with legal requirements.

They are provided for general information and guidance and to express expert professional interpretation and opinion, on important food-related issues. Skip to main content.

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back Guidance for Food Businesses Sustainability Guidance for Policy Makers Sustainability Guidance for Educators Sustainability Guidance for Consumers Sustainability. Food authenticity testing part 1: The role of analysis.

Executive summary Analytical testing is a valuable tool in the armoury to assure food authenticity but cannot be used to identify every type of food fraud.

Food fraud. The risk of food fraud. The role of analytical testing in a food fraud defence strategy. Scope of analytical testing for detecting different categories types of food fraud. Analytical approaches: fundamental classifications.

Typical ways of classifying the approach are: targeted vs untargeted analysis specific analyte s vs Multi-Variate Analysis MVA , or laboratory vs point-of-use testing. Targeted vs untargeted analysis. In the field of food fraud, examples are: testing for a specific adulterant e.

melamine in milk powder, chicory in soluble coffee powder testing for a known marker that is characteristic of a particular grade of product e.

UV absorbance ratios and fat ratios to characterise Extra Virgin Olive Oil , or testing for a pre-defined section of DNA e. Today, food authenticity, the absence of food fraud, is aligned with the food movement that emphasizes local, quality, and authenticity.

Now, with the enhanced ability to detect food fraud problems and to verify food authenticity, it presents an opportunity in the marketing and branding of food. Weinberg: Consumers are demanding transparency as to where their food comes from and what is in it.

Additionally, food authenticity represents a fresh starting point to address the issue of food integrity. Efforts thus far have ranged from being very effective to ineffective and a new approach will help to assess and streamline what has become highly fragmented and disjointed. As opposed to food fraud, which is seen by the industry as a negative, food authenticity can be positively positioned.

If the food industry is able to prove food is authentic, brand value, reputation, and profits can be enhanced. Weinberg: Academic institutions and the Food Authenticity Network the UK government initiative to help bring together those involved in food authenticity testing are employing science to prove whether something is authentic.

Technology companies are trying to develop technologies to determine authenticity. IFAAO is employing a collaborative multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach to educate and help institutions like Codex Alimentarius and its member states both define food authenticity and ensure there is a single harmonized approach taken across the globe.

Spink: Food authenticity testing is a form of quality control or specification confirmation. This is a complex food-science concept, so the activities have naturally grown out of food science groups.

A criminology forensic chemist would usually focus on different activities but using food authenticity testing would be key for them to confirm a crime has occurred. Roberts: Because consumers are becoming more aware, they are driving the industry to become more interested. The industry is seeing challenges and lawsuits as to whether their food is authentic, and that is also going a long way to connect branding and marketing with authenticity.

Additionally, it helped when food integrity became a focus of US Pharmacopeia USP ; having such a reputable organization involved increased awareness. The honey and olive oil industries have been petitioning FDA for years for a standard, but the agency continues to steer clear of developing this legal tool.

Spink: The vast majority of food fraud incidents do not cause a public health threat — but they could. Food fraud is a root cause of food safety incidents. Thus, groups such as GFSI have taken a total quality management approach and focused on reducing the root cause which are vulnerabilities.

Thus, food fraud prevention focuses on vulnerabilities first before evaluating and addressing risks. Everstine: The biggest concern with food fraud is if the substances used will be harmful to human health, such as what happened when melamine was added to milk supplies resulting in illnesses and deaths in babies who consumed infant formula made from that milk.

However, beyond that, when we consume foods that have been misrepresented in some way, we are not able to ensure that they were produced with the appropriate food safety controls. We are trusting food safety to people who are intentionally misrepresenting the food they are selling, which is a gamble.

Weinberg: Inauthentic food can be of poor quality and be a safety risk. From a quality perspective, authentic food ingredients may command a higher price.

If foods are inauthentic, then they should not command the same price as authentic food. Weinberg: Yes. It will take a harmonized combination of science, technology, intelligence, policies, standards, and laws. Spink: Theoretically, probably, in most cases. In reality, no. The food itself is so variable… if there is more rain, then some of the profiles can change.

Also, there are so many ingredients — let alone molecules — that authentication is complex. We can continue to find ways to determine certain aspects such as DNA, ionization of water, etc. But what if water from the San Fernando Valley is used to irrigate crops in Napa Valley?

The authenticity testing of the ionization of the water may identify fraud. The wine is labeled and presented as a product of Napa Valley and does not state anything about the water that is used. Authentication is too costly and time consuming.

Everstine: We need to be strategic in our approach to ensuring food authenticity. In cases where the provenance or production method adds value to the product, stakeholders along the supply chain will probably want to put in place extra measures to ensure authenticity. But it is certainly not feasible to conduct extensive testing on foods at every point in the supply chain.

An effective plan for ensuring food authenticity will focus on those foods and ingredients that are the most vulnerable, use a combination of risk reduction strategies, and ensure resources spent on analytical testing are as targeted as possible. But to solve a problem, one should start with the lowest hanging fruit which includes honey, olive oil, spices, juices, and seafood.

Technology is often seen as the panacea for the problem, but I keep reminding folks that while we need technology and testing to combat this problem, effective governance and enforcement are also essential.

Weinberg: A globally harmonized standard would level the playing field for countries and stakeholders in the food industry. If everyone is acting in accordance with a single standard, it is easier to regulate the issue of food authenticity.

For consumers, food authenticity means that consumers can know where their food is coming from and what is in it, and have comfort in knowing that they are getting what they are paying for. Spink: Harmonization of terms and management systems will help everyone at least start on the same page.

In the past there have been different projects with different scopes of work, and the findings could not be combined. I was at a conference where a European business person said he was working on TACCP and VACCP threat and vulnerability assessment and critical control point systems.

Because these are GFSI concepts that are being more generally adopted, the U. colleague knew exactly what they were talking about. Those two people could immediately start talking about the details and sharing best practices. An important part of the international harmonized activity is the shift to prevention — and that of an interdisciplinary and complex focus on the entire problem, not just pieces.

For example, the root cause is a human adversary, so the fraud opportunity is based on criminology theory such as situational crime prevention.

Additionally, food fraud prevention theory shifts the focus from emergency room reaction to a long-term focus on your total health which includes some preventive measures. For example, it can be likened to the preventive use of sunscreen vs.

applying aloe vera on a sunburn or being treated for resulting melanoma. Next, we need to be able to verify authenticity, so we need to have standards.

As I have mentioned, standards making has fallen out of favor; however, perhaps we need to reassess the purpose of standards and our approach in making them.

Everstine: Global standard-ization can be helpful to both industry and consumers by providing a common set of requirements that increases food safety and facilitates trade.


Difference between Authentication and Authorization? (Software Testing Interview Question #150)

Sample product authenticity testing - We offer food authenticity testing by providing a comprehensive portfolio of methods dedicated to the detection of adulterants in fruit juice, agave syrup samples using one of two methods certified through round robin testing. A Resources. Submission Forms · Biobased Product Testing Facility · Radiocarbon AMS Authenticity testing is the analytical authenticity verification of food and feed with regard to its composition, purity, origin and production The system is able to analyze several sample types and targets (meat, fish and simple plant samples) within a single sequencing run, enabling shorter

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Phase 2: reduce the frequency of testing to one sample per 5 to 10 incoming batches, with the frequency based on your estimate of the ongoing risk. As in phase 1, materials with seasonal supply fluctuations should be tested over various seasons.

Use the results from phase 2 to continue to add to the overall picture of authenticity for this material type within your supply chain. Continue until you have at least 10 results.

Progress to phase 3 if all results are satisfactory. Phase 3: is an ongoing maintenance phase. Aim to test one sample per 10 to 20 incoming batches as an ongoing protocol.

Type B: Material for which you have received specific intelligence related to authenticity that pertains to your supply chain.

Phase 1: focussing on the implicated products or ingredients, take samples from at least 5 incoming batches. If the material is non-homogenous — for example if it is in individual packages, or individual pieces rather than being a bulk liquid or powder — consider taking duplicate or triplicate samples from each incoming batch, if budget allows.

Move to phase 2 if all test results are satisfactory. Phase 2: reduce the frequency of testing to one sample per 5 incoming batches.

Continue this frequency of testing until your intelligence information and your test results are sufficient to suggest that the risks within your supply chain have passed. If the risk has abated, reduce the frequency to that of phase 3 for type A.

The aim is to build a picture of authenticity across the year. Continue until you have at least 5 results per supplier or geographical source.

Multiple data points Sale on seasonal greens collected Sample product authenticity testing the Saple. Return to Top. Laboratories Sample product authenticity testing take care on their Ssmple reports not to stray beyond their accredited scope by commenting on interpretation, and this can mean that customers are unaware of caveats and are left with the false impression that the interpretation of the result is clear-cut. Even a named expert can have his interpretation challenged in a Court of Law so it is not necessarily unequivocal. What is IFS Certification? Authenticity testing by the experts

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